Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: diagnostic criteria, epidemiology, risk factors and evaluation in youth

Maria Demma I. Cabral, Stephanie Liu, Neelkamal Soares


Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurodevelopmental disorder in childhood with persistence into adulthood. It has a multifactorial etiology. Its chronicity, if diagnosis is missed or delayed, will result in significant negative impact on the individual’s overall functioning and development. With the revised diagnostic criteria released in 2013 by the American Psychiatric Association, established standards of clinical practice continue to be applicable and valuable in the diagnosis and management of ADHD. In older children and adolescents, it is important to differentiate what is developmentally appropriate from problematic as ADHD has high correlation with poor outcomes, comorbidities, and low quality of life.