Multi-modal imaging of the pediatric heart transplant recipient
The assessment of pediatric patients after orthotropic heart transplantation (OHT) relies heavily on non-invasive imaging. Because of the potential risks associated with cardiac catheterization, expanding the role of non-invasive imaging is appealing. Echocardiography is fast, widely available, and can provide an accurate assessment of chamber sizes and function. Advanced echocardiographic methods, such as myocardial deformation, have potential to assess for acute rejection or cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV). While not currently part of routine care, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) and computed tomography may potentially aid in the detection of graft complications following OHT. In particular, CMR tissue characterization holds promise for diagnosing rejection, while quantitative perfusion and myocardial late gadolinium enhancement may have a role in the detection of CAV. This review will evaluate standard and novel methods for non-invasive assessment of pediatric patients after OHT.