Current management of non-palpable testes: a literature review and clinical results
Cryptorchidism is a common pathology that occurs in 3% in full term newborns, and it decreases to 0.8–1.2% at 1 year of age. Nearly a 20% of undescended testes are non-palpable. Various surgical treatments have been described, but its management is still controversial. A literature review was made of non-palpable testes, analysing diagnostic tools, treatment and its results. Additionally we reviewed non-palpable testes cases treated in our centre in the last 20 years. Different techniques are described for the management of non-palpable testes; with or without section of the spermatic vessels and/or in 1 or 2 stages. Nowadays, literature supports the laparoscopic management in two stages. In our experience, we have better results in two-stage Fowler-Stephens than one-stage, with lower rates of testicular atrophy. Non-palpable testes are a common pathology in paediatric urology. Analysing the literature and our experience we recommend a two-stage surgery for intra-abdominal testes, which has demonstrated good results and lower percentage of atrophic testis.