Treatment of vesico-ureteral reflux in infants and children using endoscopic approaches
Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) represents one of the most significant risk factors for acute pyelonephritis in children. Endoscopic treatment of VUR dates back to 1981 when Matouschek first described injection of the ureteral orifice in an attempt to correct VUR. In addition, also Politano and colleagues and McDonald described successful correction of reflux using endoscopic techniques. After these reports subureteral Teflon injection (STING) came to be appreciated as a viable new way to less invasively correct one of the most common pediatric urologic problems. The technique is technically easy to perform and is usually performed as an outpatient procedure. It is performed in general anesthesia in children and may require repeat injections, particularly in patients with high-grade reflux. As for endoscopic technique, a main problem existed. The success in children with high grade reflux was less than reported for open or laparoscopic reimplant techniques. However, in the past 10 years, newer products have become available that are changing the indications for endoscopic correction. In these review, we analyzed the papers published in the literature on this topic to give to the readers an updated overview about the results of endoscopic treatment of VUR after 30-years of his first description.