Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the main pathogens involved in infantile hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) and has caused many deaths. After the phase III evaluation of the EV71 vaccine, Professor Fengcai Zhu and his colleagues found that EV71 vaccine provided high efficacy and sustained immunogenicity. However, it could only help to reduce the EV71-associated disease, not all the cases of HFMD. Therefore, Professor Fengcai Zhu needs to assess the appropriateness of an EV71 vaccine in China’s national immunisation programme, and share the trial internationally. DXY.CN was honored to have an exclusive interview with Professor Fengcai Zhu, deputy director of the Jiangsu provincial center for disease prevention and control. He shared his insight into EV71 vaccine and HFMD, as well as his opinions on the physicians in cases of epidemic disease.