Association of folate metabolism genes MTHFR and MTRR with multiple complex congenital malformation risk in Chinese population of Shanxi
Birth defects are common, serious malformations with a complex etiology that suggests involvement of both genetic and environmental factors. Low dietary folate and polymorphisms in genes of folate metabolism can influence risk for birth defects. In the present study 250 Chinese birth defects cases who suffered 1-8 types of birth defect disease phenotypes were subjected and two genetic variants in two folate metabolism key enzymes, rs1801394 of methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) and rs1801133 of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) were genotyped by using SNaPshot method. The results indicated that rs1801394 and rs1801133 were associated with multiple birth defects. According to homology of organogenesis, the disease phenotypes were classified into ectoderm-, mesoderm-, and endoderm-developed groups. Genetic analysis results displayed that as protective factors, genetic variants of rs1801133 and rs1801394 were associated with the risk of ectoderm-, and endoderm-developed malformations, but only the variant of rs1801394 was associated with the risk of mesoderm-developed malformations. Our present study first related nutrition metabolism related gene variants to germ layers and provided a novel understanding of an implication of earlier causation of birth defects pathogenesis in humans.