Transplantation of the failing Fontan
Half a century has passed since the original Fontan palliation. In the interim, surgical and medical advancements have allowed more single ventricle patients to reach Fontan and long-term survival for Fontan patients to improve significantly. However, the risk for Fontan failure and need for heart transplantation remains. In this article we discuss mechanisms of Fontan failure, risk factors and special considerations for Fontan patients in both medical and surgical management around heart transplantation and provide an updated review of survival for Fontan patients after heart transplantation.