Recent innovations in perfusion and cardiopulmonary bypass for neonatal and infant cardiac surgery
The development and refinement of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) has made the repair of complex congenital heart defects possible in neonates and infants. In the past, the primary goal for these procedures was patient survival. Now that substantial survival rates have been achieved for even the most complex of repairs in these patients, focus has been given to the reduction of morbidity. Although a necessity for these complex neonatal and infant heart defect repairs, CPB can also be an important source of perioperative complications. Recent innovations have been developed to mitigate these risks and is the topic of this review. Specifically, we will discuss improvements in minimizing blood transfusions, CPB circuit design, monitoring, perfusion techniques, temperature management, and myocardial protection, and then conclude with a brief discussion of how further systematic improvements can be made in these areas.