Ophthalmic manifestations of endocrine disorders—endocrinology and the eye
Disorders of the endocrine system usually manifest in a multi-organ fashion. More specifically, many endocrinopathies become apparent in the eye first through a variety of distinct pathophysiologic disturbances. The eye provides physicians with valuable clues for the recognition and management of numerous systemic diseases, including many disorders of the endocrine pathway. Recognizing ophthalmic manifestations of endocrine disorders is critical not only for rapid diagnosis and treatment, but also to prevent significant morbidity and mortality. In this review, we discuss relevant ophthalmic findings associated with key disorders of the pancreas, thyroid gland, and hypothalamic-pituitary axis, as well as with multiple hereditary endocrine syndromes. We have chosen to focus on diabetes mellitus (DM), Graves’ ophthalmopathy, pituitary tumors, and some less common disorders that underscore the unique relationship between the eye and the endocrine system.