Metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents
Abstract: Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents is increasing, in parallel with the increasing trends in obesity rates. Varying definitions of this syndrome have hindered the development of a consensus for the diagnostic criteria in the pediatric population. While pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome is not completely understood, insulin resistance and subsequent inflammation are thought to be among its main mechanistic underpinnings. Overweight and obesity are cardinal features, along with abnormal glucose metabolism, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Other disorders associated with metabolic syndrome include fatty liver, polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), and pro-inflammatory states. Prevention and management of this condition can be accomplished with lifestyle modifications, behavioral interventions, pharmacological and surgical interventions as needed.