Chronic kidney disease and sports participation by children and adolescents
Individuals suffering from chronic kidney disease (CKD) deal with major morbidity and mortality including poor exercise tolerance. A variety of factors including anemia, poor muscle mass, cardiovascular changes and limited physical activity contribute to exercise intolerance. Studies suggest that early initiation of aerobic and resistance training improves the muscle function, ability to tolerate exercise and quality of life in CKD patients. A thorough medical examination and exercise testing are recommended before initiating an exercise regimen in individuals with CKD. Though current recommendations suggest a qualified approval to contact sports in patients with solitary kidney, a proper risk assessment and counselling must be provided detailing all the risks involved. Special care must be taken to avoid infection or damage to the peritoneal dialysis catheter and hemodialysis vascular access sites. Collision sports should be avoided in individuals with kidney transplant, ectopic kidney or with other urological abnormalities (severe hydronephrosis or ureteropelvic junction obstruction) with high risk of injury.