The field of pediatric sports medicine has evolved from a wide array of different basic science and clinical disciplines. By its very nature, the practice of sports medicine requires collaboration among multiple disciplines. The primary goal of the field of sports medicine is to integrate and apply concepts and principles of basic and clinical sciences in order to promote lifelong health, to prevent injuries, and to manage medical problems within the context of sport participation. Physical activity is an integral part of sports participation; however, participation in sports has additional implications. Sports play a major role in the lives of children and adolescents, whether they engage in such activity as spontaneous play or organized sports. Participation in sports inherently occurs within a larger social context and variably influences physical, psychological, and social growth and development of children and adolescents. In the face of a global epidemic of pediatric obesity, engaging children in physical activity and sports is essential in order to cultivate a lifelong pursuit of healthy life style.