Article Abstract

Retroperitoneal and laparoscopic heminephrectomy in duplex kidney in infants and children

Authors: Ciro Esposito, Maria Escolino, Marco Castagnetti, Antonio Savanelli, Angela La Manna, Alessandra Farina, Francesco Turrà, Agnese Roberti, Alessandro Settimi, Francois Varlet, Holger Till, Jean Stephan Valla


Background: Two main techniques are adopted to perform partial nephrectomy in children: laparoscopy and retroperitoneoscopy. The aim of this paper is to review the larger multicentric experience recently published by our group to review indications, techniques and results of both approaches.
Methods: Data of 102 patients underwent partial nephrectomy in a 5-year period using minimally invasive surgery (MIS) procedures were analyzed. Fifty-two children underwent laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN), and 50 children underwent retroperitoneoscopic partial nephrectomy (RPN). Median age at surgery was 4.2 years. Statistical analysis was performed using χ2 test and Student’s t-test.
Results: The overall complications rate was significantly higher after RPN (15/50, 30%) than after LPN (10/52, 19%) (χ2 =0.05). In LPN group, complications [4 urinomas, 2 symptomatic refluxing distal ureteral stump (RDUS) and 4 urinary leakages] were conservatively managed. In RPN group, complications (6 urinomas, 8 RDUS, 1 opening of remaining calyxes) required a re-operation in 2 patients. In both groups no conversion to open surgery was reported. Operative time (LPN: 166.2 min vs. RPN: 255 min; P<0.001) and hospitalization (LPN: 3.5 days vs. RPN: 4.1 days; P<0.001) were significantly shorter in LPN group. No postoperative loss of renal function was reported in both groups.
Conclusions: MIS now represents the gold standard technique to perform partial nephrectomy in children with duplex kidney. Our results demonstrate that RPN remains a technically demanding procedure with a significantly higher complications and re-operation rate compared to LPN. In addition, length of surgery and hospitalization were significantly shorter after LPN compared to RPN. LPN seems to be a faster, safer and technically easier procedure to perform in children compared to RPN due to a larger operative space and the possibility to perform a complete ureterectomy in refluxing systems.